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Rootstock Descriptions

Z-Dwarf

New cherry rootstock from Zaiger Genetics. Very dwarf, unpruned trees grow to about twelve feet. Perfect for container growing and adaptable to many soil types.

Betulaefolia (Betula)

Standard rootstock for Asian and flowering pears. More vigorous than Calleryana; unpruned tree height of fruiting varieties 15-25 ft.; tree may be held to any height with summer pruning. Tolerates wet soil, dry soil, alkaline soil. Resistant to pear decline. More cold hardy than Calleryana, to at least -10° F.

Citation (Cit.)

Peaches and nectarines dwarfed to 8-14 ft.; apricots and plums dwarfed to 12-18 ft. Very tolerant of wet soil; not drought tolerant(induces early dormancy in dry soil) so needs very regular water in hot climates; a top dressing of mulch can help maintain soil moisture. Resists root-knot nematodes. Induces heavy bearing at a young age. Very winter hardy. Strong and well anchored. Pat. No. 5112 (Zaiger)

Colt

In heavy soils, standard cherries are dwarfed to about 22 to 30ft. Lesser dwarfing effect in other soils. Relatively tolerant of wet soils, apparently resistant to bacterial canker. Trees begin bearing at a young age. Trees on Colt may be held to any desired height by summer pruning.

Domestic Apple (Apple)

Most rugged rootstock for apples. Vigorous, deep-rooted, tolerates wet soil, dry soil, poor soil. Cold hardy. Trees slower to bear than semi-dwarfs. Apparently resistant to oak-root fungus. Un-pruned tree height of standard varieties 18-30 ft.; tree may be kept to any height desired with summer pruning. Seed from Golden Delicious.

Domestic Pear Seedling (Pear)

Standard rootstock for European and hybrid pears. Seed usually from Bartlett. Long-lived, vigorous trees reach 15-25 ft.; can control size with summer pruning. Relatively tolerant of wet soils and drought. Disease resistant; resistant to oak-root fungus. Durable, productive.

Krymnsk 1 (Kry.)

Dwarfing rootstock for peaches, plums, apricots and nectarines.  Produces a tree about half the size of standard, roughly eight to fourteen feet.  Does very well in heavy soils.

Lovell (Lov.)

Vigorous, standard rootstock for plums, peaches, nectarines, apricots, prunes, almonds. More tolerant of wet soils than Nemaguard; also more cold hardy. Susceptible to nematodes in sandy soils. Provides good anchorage and high degree of disease resistance. Unpruned tree height of standard varieties 15-25 ft.; size can be controlled further with summer pruning.

M 111

Excellent all-around rootstock for apples. Induces bearing at a younger age than standards. Tolerates wet soil, dry soil, poor soil, soil with high temperatures. Resists woolly apple aphids, collar rot and fireblight. Apparently resistant to oak-root fungus. Trees dwarfed to 80-90% of standard, or about 15-25 ft.; can be further controlled with summer pruning. Very cold hardy, does not promote early bud break; used in Ontario, Canada. Rarely suckers.

M 27

Extremely dwarfing rootstock for apples. Trees dwarfed to 50% of standard. Ideal for high density planting, small spaces in garden and tub growing. Induces early and heavy bearing of slightly smaller than normal fruit. Shallow root system; young trees require staking. Prefers well drained soil and requires constant soil moisture. Rarely suckers. Resistant to fireblight. Winter hardy in cold areas if roots can be protected from severe soil heaving.

M 7 (EMLA-7)

Dwarfing rootstock for apples. Unpruned tree height 2/3 the size of standard, or about 12-20 ft.; can be held to any height with summer pruning. Induces early and heavy bearing. Resistant to fireblight and powdery mildew, moderately resistant to collar rot. Has good anchorage. Very winter hardy, widely adapted.

Mahaleb (Mah.)

The most winter hardy of the commonly used cherry rootstocks. Resists crown gall, bacterial canker, some nematodes. Not tolerant of wet soils. Standard varieties slightly dwarfed to about 85% of their height on Mazzard, or about 25-35 ft. Can be held at any height with summer pruning. Induces early, heavy bearing.

Marianna 26-24 (Mari.)

Standard rootstock for apricots, plums, prunes, most almonds. Mature trees comparatively small, 15-20 ft. if unpruned; can be kept smaller with summer pruning. Shallow root system, much more tolerant of wet soils than Lovell or Nemaguard; is not tolerant of hot soils. Has tendency to sucker. Resistant to oak-root fungus, root-knot nematodes, root rot.

Mazzard (Mazz.)

Standard rootstock for sweet cherries; unpruned tree height of standard varieties is 30-40 ft.; trees may be held to any height with summer pruning. Vigorous, more tolerant of wet soils than Mahaleb, but good drainage still required. Resistant to root-knot nematodes and oak-root fungus. Well anchored. Relatively cold hardy.

Myrobalan 29C (Myro.)

Excellent, all-around rootstock for apricots, plums, almonds. Shallow but vigorous root system tolerates wet soils and is widely adapted; is more deeply rooted than Marianna. Resistant to root-knot nematodes and has some resistance to oak-root fungus. Unpruned tree height of standard varieties 15-25 ft., but can control size further with summer pruning. Winter hardy in Michigan.

Old Home X Farmingdale 333 (OHxF 333)

For European and Asian pears. Trees dwarfed to 2/3 the size of standard, or about 12-18 ft.; easily kept smaller with summer pruning. Productive and precocious. Highly resistant to fireblight and pear decline and moderately tolerant of crown gall. Well anchored and does not sucker. Highly resistant to winter injury; widely adapted.

Nemaguard (Nema.)

Standard rootstock for nectarines, peaches, apricots, plums, prunes, almonds. Vigorous, resists root-knot nematode. Excellent for well drained soils. In heavy or poorly drained soil, plant on mound or hill. May not be winter hardy below 5°F. Unpruned tree height of standard varieties 15-25 ft., size can be controlled further with summer pruning.

Northern Calif. Black (NCB)

Black walnut seedling. Vigorous; resistant to Verticillium wilt, oak-root fungus and root knot.

Paradox

Vigorous hybrid rootstock for walnuts. English walnut varieties on Paradox are fast growing and productive at a young age. More tolerant of wet soil than No. Calif. Black, less resistant to oak root fungus.

Winter Nelis (WN)

Pear seeding rootstock for standard pears. Vigorous, relatively tolerant of wet soils, cold hardy. Resistant to pear decline and oak-root fungus. Unpruned trees on Winter Nelis can reach 15-25 feet in height, but can be held to any height with summer pruning.